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Agricultural Economics


About the Department:

Agricultural production economics is concerned primarily with economic theory as it relates to the producer of agricultural commodities. An agricultural economist is, first, an economist, in that an agricultural economist knows economic theory intimately. However, an agricultural economist is also an economist with a specialization in agriculture. The primary interest is in applying economic logic to problems that occur in agriculture. An agricultural economist needs to know economics, but a knowledge of agriculture is also important. If an agricultural economist is to portray relationships accurately using a model of some component of an agricultural sector, the agricultural economist must know these relationships. Otherwise, the salient or important elements of the theory would be missed.

job opportunity or Market job

Food Manufacturing Sales Representative

Financial Analyst

Forest Products Manager

Consumer Brand Management

Corporate Management Trainee

Investment Representative

Production Management

Land Use Manager

Agricultural Loan Officer

Farm Labor Specialist

Landscape Contractor

Forest Ecosystem Manager

Marketing Specialist

E-commerce Specialist

Grain Merchandiser

Specialized use of this field:

Some major concerns in agricultural production economics include the following.

Goals and objectives of the farm manager. Agricultural economists often assume that the objective of any farm manager is that of maximizing profits, a measurement of which is the difference between returns from the sale of crops and livestock less the costs of producing these commodities. most economic models used for representing the behavior of farm managers assume that the manager is interested in maximizing profits, or at minimum is interested in maximizing revenue subject to constraints imposed by the availability of resources.

Choice of outputs to be produced. A farm manager faces an array of options with regard to what to produce given available land, labor, machinery, and equipment. The manager must not only decide how much of each particular commodity to be produced, but also how available resources are to be allocated among alternative commodities. The farmer might be interested in maximizing profits but may have other goals as well. Often other constraints enter.

Allocation of resources among outputs. Once decisions have been made with regard to what commodity or commodities are to be produced, the farmer must decide how his or her available resources are to be allocated among outputs. A simple question to be answered is which field is to be used for the production of each crop, but the questions quickly become far more complex. Agricultural economics deal with issues underlying the problems faced by farm managers in the allocation of resources or inputs across alternative outputs or enterprises.

Assumption of risk and uncertainty. Models in production economics frequently assume that the manager knows with certainty the applicable production function (for example, the yield that would result for a crop if a particular amount of fertilizer were applied) and the prices both for inputs to be purchased and outputs to be sold. However, in agriculture, the assumption of knowledge with respect to the production function is almost never met. Hence farmers must make production decisions with less than perfect knowledge with regard to the price at which the product will sell when it is actually placed on the market.



Dr. Toktam Mohtashami

Assistant Professor, Ph.D. in Economics


University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran.

PhD of Agricultural Economics


Tel.: +985152299602 – 185,       Fax: +98 51 52299632

Faculty Members:




Tel.: +985152299602 – 185,       Fax: +98 51 52299632